Code of Ethics


(10/16/05) TTIA Code of Ethics The TT practitioner, educator, researcher demonstrates – Responsibilities to Clients: – Respect by responding to the client’s wholeness, inherent worth, individuality and diversity. Honoring the client’s healing potential..


  • Accepts responsibility for the consequences of one’s actions.
  • Requests peer and client feedback of one’s practice, education, and research to assure quality and effectiveness of one’s work.
  • Makes a contribution to the organization through active involvement in the organization. Ensures that all marketing materials convey accurate information about self (academic qualifications/credentials/education, certification, professional affiliations and experience, practice, and research).
  • Accurately represents the possible outcomes of the TT process.


  • Uses self-care practices regularly to ensure one’s own health and well-being.
  • Refrains from working with clients/students/research participants if one’s well-being may interfere with the provision of safe, effective care.

Responsibilities to Clients:


  • Responds appropriately to the client’s wholeness.
  • Honors the client’s healing potential.
  • Respects client’s boundaries (physical, mental, emotional, and spiritual), touches the client with the client’s consent.
  • Respects the client’s freedom to choose approaches to healing that are congruent with the client’s values and beliefs, and the right of the client to change her/his choice at will.
  • Respects diversity among clients.
  • Acknowledges the inherent worth and individuality of clients.
  • Preserves and protects client information, shares information with the client’s permission.


  • Clearly and accurately represents one’s academic qualifications, certification, professional affiliations, and experience, to the client.
  • Clearly conveys the potential outcome of the TT session.
  • Conducts all business within the scope of one’s practice and refers clients to appropriate others when outside of one’s own scope of practice. Provides only services for which one is contracted.


  • Makes financial arrangements in advance of providing services to the client. Seeks fair remuneration as deserved for one’s work.
  • Provides a safe and comfortable work environment.
  • Provides only services for which one is contracted.
  • Maintains a professional relationship with clients.
  • Communicates responsibly, truthfully, and respectfully with clients
  • Avoids working with clients when one’s health or mental status may place the client in harms way or compromise one’s ability to provide the highest quality service possible.
  • Refrains from initiating or engaging in any sexual conduct, sexual activities, or sexualizing behavior involving the client or client’s family member.
  • Recognizes when there is a conflict of interest situation, acknowledges the conflict and removes oneself from the situation.


  • Provides TT sessions that are consistent with the guidelines for the practice of TT. Maintains an ongoing TT practice.
  • Provides clients with a clear and accurate description of the service to be provided, desired outcome, contraindications, and side effects, prior to the provision of that service.
  • Ensures that the client clearly understands the explanation provided prior to the provision of the service.
  • Ensures that the client has provided consent (implied or actual).
  • Recognizes the client’s right to freedom of choice and that the client can decline the provided service at any time during the interaction. Maintains accurate, up-to-date records.


  • Requests client feedback as assessment of one’s practice, education and/or research. Terminates the relationship when it is clear that client will no longer benefit from the interaction.
  • Refers to other practitioners when it is clear that the client is no longer receiving benefit from the TT sessions.
  • Consults with other health care practitioners regarding the client’s care when such consultation could potentially benefit the client or at the request of the client.(one person indicated ‘only on client’s request’)

Responsibilities to Colleagues and Community:


  • Respects the rights, knowledge, skills and diversity of colleagues and other health care professionals in a manner that parallels the ethical behavior for working with clients. Avoids derogatory remarks concerning the practices, abilities, or competence of another practitioner or other healthcare disciplines.
  • Respects diversity of colleagues, peers, and other professionals.
  • Conducts oneself in a manner of fairness, directness, openness and cooperation in all dealings with colleagues and the community.


  • Is honest, transparent and direct in one’s communication of issues, concerns, and potential resolutions.
  • Clearly and accurately represents one’s academic qualifications, certification, professional affiliations, and experience to colleagues and the community. Clearly and directly communicates information.


  • Openly attends to all aspects of an issue.
    Ensures confidentiality of information shared with colleagues or other professionals.
  • Ensures that orders of business directly impacting a member are made available to that individual directly.
  • Refrains from making derogatory remarks concerning the practice, abilities, or competence of another practitioner, NH-PAI member, or member of a health care discipline.


  • Consults with other colleagues and health care practitioners regarding professional practiceissues.
  • Acts in accordance with NHPAI standards and guidelines for practice, instruction, and the conduct of research, in relationships with colleagues and the community.


  • Establishes a cooperative relationship with other practitioners and health care professionals.
  • Works with other professionals and organizations in a respectful, supportive manner.
  • Ensures all contracts and agreements are clearly and fully disclosed and honored.
  • Attends to both the clarifying and/or resolving of any issues of disagreement or concern asthese may arise with colleagues or the community.
  • Demonstrates respect for differing approaches, strategies, beliefs and values both of one’slocal community and the global community.
  • Seeks the highest good for all individuals and organizations with whom one interfaces,embracing a spirit of harmony and unity in all one’s dealings.

Unethical Conduct

Matters of unethical conduct will first be addressed directly with the individual(s) involved. If there is ineffective resolution to the concern, then, the concern will be brought to the Ethics Review Committee (ERC). A formal, written concern will be addressed to the ERC and the individual or individuals involved in the concern will have the opportunity to respond in writing to charge of unethical conduct. A meeting will be held by ERC to ensure a fair hearing about the situation and how it arose is conducted. If further information is required before a final decision is made, the information will be requested from the appropriate parties. ERC will provide it’s decision and any action, if necessary, to the parties involved, within two weeks of the formal hearing.

October, 2004


created: 08/02/2005

Introduction: NH-PAI is an international organization dedicated to supporting and ensuring quality practice, education and research of the Therapeutic Touch process.

The code of ethics enables the association to clarify and guide the nature of ethical responsibilities and behaviors held in common by its members. The code of ethics also serves as the basis for processing ethical complaints against a member of the association.

NH-PAI recognizes the cultural variables that shape the expression of codes of ethics in the global Therapeutic Touch community and offers this document as a guideline for the practice of Therapeutic Touch in countries around the world.

Professional Responsibilities:


  • Acts in accordance with NH-PAI standards and guidelines for practice, instruction, and the conduct of research.
  • Respects the use of service marks, trademarks, and copyright.
  • Maintains accurate and up-to-date records.


  • Accurately represents one’s education and experience.
  • Identifies one’s areas of strength and areas for growth.
  • Practices within one’s scope of practice and refrains from activities outside one’s scope of practice.


  • Performs only those services for which one is qualified.
  • Refers clients to other practitioners if the service one is providing is not benefiting the client, if the client’s needs are beyond one’s scope of practice, and/or if one thinks that one cannot provide appropriate care to the client.
  • Makes financial arrangements in advance of providing services to the client.


  • Endeavors to practice at the highest degree of professional competence.
  • Maintains and upgrades professional excellence in the practice of TT through continuing education activities, ie training, workshops, mentorships, conferences, reading, self-reflection, conferring with colleagues and research, on TT and related topics.


  • Provides TT sessions that are consistent with the NH-PAI guidelines for the practice of TT. Maintains an ongoing practice of TT.


  • Ensures that workshop, seminar, class descriptions, and course outlines are accurate in terms of subject matter to be covered, basis for evaluating progress, and the nature of the course experiences.
  • Teaches TT in a manner that is consistent with NH-PAI guidelines.
  • Teaches only at the level that one is qualified to teach.
  • Recognizes that one’s personal values may affect the selection and presentation of instructional material.
  • Respects student’s rights and supports achievement of student’s responsibilities. – Research
  • Ensures that the client provides informed consent.
  • Ensures client privacy.
  • Secures appropriate authorization to conduct research.
  • Complies with ethical standards for conducting research.


(03/08/05) As a member of Therapeutic Touch International Association, Inc. I agree to practice Therapeutic Touch consistent with the following principles.

As a member of Therapeutic Touch International Association, Inc., I agree to practice Therapeutic Touch consistent with the following principles:

  1. I will practice Therapeutic Touch consistent with the process as developed by Dolores Krieger, PhD, RN and Dora Kunz and as established by the organization.
  2. I will obtain the person’s and/or family’s permission and consent for Therapeutic Touch, whenever possible.
  3. I will respect the person’s rights and responsibilities in the Therapeutic Touch process.
  4. I will inform people of my fees prior to practicing Therapeutic Touch.
  5. I will provide Therapeutic Touch based upon people’s unique needs and with respect for their individual differences.
  6. I will keep my interactions with people non-exploitive and complementary to their care.
  7. I will not market, by mail or in person, any other product or service to people without prior permission.
  8. I will hold all information shared during Therapeutic Touch in confidence.
  9. I will not incorporate other healing modalities into my Therapeutic Touch practice, unless I have both the qualifications to do so and, whenever possible, the person’s permission.
  10. I will not discuss my personal problems or issues with those seeking my professional services.
  11. I will strengthen my abilities to practice Therapeutic Touch through continuing practice, education and/or mentoring.
  12. I will practice Therapeutic Touch with integrity, always keeping the interests of the person foremost.

Adapted from the Therapeutic Touch Network (Ontario) document (October, 1995). 3/6/99, 5/12/99

This material may not be reproduced without written permission from TTIA, Inc. When this document is used as a resource, please acknowledge TTIA, Inc. as the source.